Cytokine Signalling Forum


December 21

Highlights of 2021

McInnes IB.
Please click the links below to go to the CSF review of each paper

I’m sure we’d all hoped that this year would be a return to normal but, in the midst of the challenges we’ve faced with COVID-19, the rheumatology community has continued to deliver excellent publications, and we’ve covered many of these on the CSF. Here are my highlights from 2021's publications:

February 21

La voie JAK/STAT : Un Regard sur la Douleur dans la Polyarthrite Rhumatoïde

Simon LS, Taylor PC, Choy EH, Sebba A, Quebe A, Knopp KL, Porreca F.
Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021 Feb;51(1):278-284

Many cytokines associated with RA pathogenesis and pain are affected directly or indirectly by the JAK/STAT pathway, therapeutic targeting may offer promise. Having better understanding of these mechanisms can help clinicians make treatment decisions that optimise the control of inflammation and pain. However, pain in patients with RA is complex and involves multiple driving mechanisms that may differentially occur over time in different people. Although one known constant is that nociceptive ...

Mots clefs: JAK, Efficacy

Le Baricitinib Inhibe la Progression des Lésions Articulaires Structurales Chez les Patients Atteints de Polyarthrite Rhumatoïde - Étude Approfondie

Emery P, Durez P, Hueber AJ, Ide la Torre I, Larsson E, Holzkämper T, Tanaka Y.
Arthritis Res Ther 2021;23(1):3.

MRI studies have shown that BARI reduces joint inflammation and damage in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA. This review summarises the effects of BARI on structural joint damage progression and the mechanisms underlying these effects, using MRI data from across the clinical trial program. Early preclinical animal models showed a significant reduction in joint inflammation, ankle width, and bone resorption. Efficacy and safety of BARI have been confirmed in an extensive programme, inc...

Mots clefs: JAK, Baricitinib, Radiographic

December 20

Highlights of 2020

McInnes I.
Please click the links below to go to the CSF review of each paper

2020 unfolded apace, dominated by COVID-19 - we have all had to adapt in our practice and in our knowledge base. Amid this there have continued to be a constant flow of publications and science in cytokine signaling, and as in previous years as we come the end of 2020, I will highlight some of the notable papers of the year. You can find the most notable papers, as selected by CSF Steering Committee Chair Professor Iain McInnes, with links to their respective detailed summaries below:

February 20

L'Ostéo-Immunologie Dans La Polyarthrite Rhumatoïde Et Psoriasique : Effets Potentiels Du Tofacitinib Sur I‘Atteinte Osseuse

Orsolini G, Bertoldi I, Rossini M.
Clin Rheumatol. 2020

Data showing that TOF can inhibit unbalanced osteoclastogenesis in RA suggests that targeting the JAK-STAT pathway can halt bone erosion, as TOF has been shown to reduce articular bone erosion in RA and PsA. The authors in this review summarise current knowledge on the relationship between the immune system and the skeleton before examining the involvement of JAK-STAT signalling in bone homeostasis while discussing the evidence on the benefit of TOF on prevention of bone involvement in RA and Ps...

Mots clefs: Cytokine Signalling, Clinical, Efficacy

Traduit par: Melissa Noack

December 19

Highlights of 2019

McInnes I.
Please click the links below to go to the CSF review of each paper

2019 was another remarkable year in cytokine signalling. We can be optimistic that clinical practice for inflammatory arthritis will continue to improve, with promising long-term safety data supporting the use of established JAK inhibitors; tofacitinib and baricitinib, in addition to exciting phase III clinical data for filgotinib and newly approved upadacitinib. You can find the most notable papers, as selected by CSF Steering Committee Chair Professor Iain McInnes, with links to their respec...

December 18

Professor Iain McInnes Reviews the Most Notable Papers from 2018

McInnes I.
Please click the links below to go to the CSF review of each paper

2018 brought a wealth of new data in cytokine signalling and IL-6 that helps inform current clinical practice and brings the promise of new options in the future. There was good data on the use of sub cutaneous tocilizumab as well as strategies in early RA and for methotrexate tapering. For the currently marketed JAK inhibitors, tofacitinib and baricitinib, continuous long-term efficacy and safety data further support its current use and applications. On the development side, the outcomes of the...

February 18

Professor Iain McInnes Reviews the Most Important Papers from 2017

McInnes I.
Please click the links below to go to the CSF review of each paper.

2017 was a successful year for rheumatoid arthritis research, with some key advances in JAK inhibitors and IL-6 inhibitors, as outlined below. - Tofacitinib was suggested as a potential treatment for psoriatic arthritis, and NICE recommended tofacitinib as a treatment for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis - Baricitinib studies supported the potential use of baricitinib as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis - Filgotinib Phase 2 studies suggested that filgotinib could be effect...

April 17

The Emerging Safety Profile of JAK Inhibitors in Rheumatic Disease

Kevin L Winthrop.
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 2017;13:234–43

This review discusses the current understanding of the safety of JAK inhibitors, including providing an overview of the changes in laboratory parameters, infection and malignancy risks associated with each JAK inhibitor compound. The review discusses the adverse event profiles and cellular changes characteristically seen with each JAK inhibitor, as well as the overlap or differences between the various compounds. The relative specificities for different JAKs between each compound do not always...

December 16

Tofacitinib Versus Biologic Treatments in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis who have had an Inadequate Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors: Results from a Network Meta-Analysis

Vieira M-C, Zwillich SH, Jansen JP, Smiechowski B, Spurden D and Wallenstein GV.
Clin Ther 2016;38:2628–40.

This network meta-analysis, performed within a Bayesian framework, concluded that tofacitinib 5 mg BID has efficacy and AE rates comparable with currently available bDMARDs over a 24-week period in patients experiencing an inadequate response to TNF therapy. A systematic literature search identified five, Phase 2 or beyond, randomised controlled trials for inclusion in the analysis. Each trial had an adult population with moderate to severe RA, with inadequate response (IR) or failed treatment...

Biologic or Tofacitinib Monotherapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis in People with Traditional Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatic Drug (DMARD) Failure: a Cochrane Systematic Review and Network meta-analysis (NMA)

Singh JA, Hossain A, Tanjong Ghogomu E, Mudano AS, Tugwell P, Wells GA.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;11:CD012437.

Treatment options for RA patients who are MTX/DMARD incomplete responders (IR) include other DMARDs, biologics or tofacitinib (TOF). However, there is a lack of direct head-to-head comparator trials of biologics in people with RA. This review provides an update of the 2009 Cochrane overview, ‘Biologics for rheumatoid arthritis’,1 and provides comparisons and estimates for biologic or TOF monotherapy in MTX/DMARD-IR people with RA. The benefits and harms of biologic monotherapy (TNFi...

July 16

Pregnancy Outcomes in the Tofacitinib Safety Databases for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Psoriasis

Clowse, et al.
Drug Saf. 2016 June 9; 39:755–762; DOI 10.1007/s40264-016-0431-z [Epub ahead of print]

RA and psoriasis may present in women of child-bearing potential, however there are currently no adequate or well-controlled studies of tofacitinib (TOF) or any DMARD in pregnant women. Pregnancy was an exclusion criterion of TOF randomized clinical trials because of the unknown effects of TOF on mother and child; TOF is a small molecule with the potential to cross the placenta. The current analysis looked at reported pregnancies and their outcomes from TOF RA and psoriasis clinical safety dat...

Biologics or Tofacitinib for Rheumatoid Arthritis in Incomplete Responders to Methotrexate or Other Traditional Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

Singh et al.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016 Issue 5. Art. No.: CD012183 [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012183].

Treatment options for RA patients who are MTX/DMARD incomplete responders (IR) include other DMARDs, biologics or tofacitinib (TOF). However, there is a lack of head-to-head studies to show any important differences between these options in terms of benefits and harms. This review provides an update of the 2009 Cochrane overview and network meta-analysis (NMA) of biologics for RA.1 Nine biologics (abatacept, adalimumab, anakinra, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab,...

Risk for Gastrointestinal Perforation Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Receiving Tofacitinib, Tocilizumab, or Other Biologics

Xie et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 May 17. DOI 10.1002/art.39761 [Epub ahead of print]

Historically, patients with RA have suffered with upper tract gastrointestinal perforation (GIPs), associated with NSAID use. More recently, the IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab (TCZ) has been associated with lower tract GIPs. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, including tofacitinib (TOF), with some downstream effects on IL-6 signalling, also have potential for an increased risk of GIPs. There is limited real-world evidence and almost no comparative evidence on the risk for GIP associated with ...

May 16

Effects of Tofacitinib and other DMARDs on Lipid Profiles in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Implications for the Rheumatologist

Charles-Schoeman et al.
Semin Arthritis Rheum 2016;46:71–80

Increased inflammation and CV disease have been associated with lower total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels in RA patients – an apparent paradox to what is observed in the general population. Previously, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels have been associated with increased risk of CV, and an inverse relationship observed with levels of HDL-C level and C-reactive protein (CRP). This analysis of the literature with regard to studies using DMARDs in ...

A Retrospective Cohort Study Comparing Utilization and Costs of Biologic Therapies and JAK Inhibitor Therapy Across Four Common Inflammatory Indications in Adult US Managed Care Patients

Chastek et al.
Adv Ther. 2016 Mar 12. DOI 10.1007/s12325-016-0312-y

Biologics are used to treat several inflammatory diseases, including RA, PsO, PsA, and AS; however, the cost of biologic therapies is high compared to non-biologic DMARDs. By using evidence-based assessment of comparative costs between biologics, healthcare resources can be properly allocated. This study used medical and pharmacy claims data to assess the utilitisation and cost of biologic treatment for RA, PsO, PsA, and AS. ETN (45%), ADA (32%), and INF (9%) were the most common medications a...

March 16

Impact of obesity on the clinical outcome of rheumatologic patients in biotherapy

Iannone et al.
Autoimmunity Reviews Doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2016.01.010

Obesity is increasingly becoming a public health concern as its prevalence continues to grow in the United States and Western nations. Obesity has been shown to be an inflammatory condition that impacts multiple tissues and systems, including the immune system possibly linking to rheumatic diseases. In this review, Iannone et al overview the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of PsA and/or RA patients with comorbid obesity. Large cohort and prospective studies in Italy, the US, and the UK have...

January 16

Cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis – shaping the immunological landscape

McInnes I, Buckley C, Isaacs J.
Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016 Jan;12(1):63-8

Cytokine-mediated pathways are central to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and there has been great advances in understanding and clinical application in the last 20 years. McInnes and colleagues provide a timely and succinct overview the roles of cytokine families in the various phases and tissue compartments of this disease. They particularly review the combinatorial role played by cytokines in mediating the overlapping innate and adaptive immune responses associated with disease onset...

April 14

What is the future of targeted therapy in rheumatology: biologics or small molecules?

Moscai A, Kovace L and Gergely P.
BMC Medicine 2014, 12:43

Our understanding of inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis has significantly increased over the last 20 years. With this greater understanding we have seen a significant improvement in the therapy of RA and other inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In this review, Moscai et al. discuss the improvements in therapies for the treatment of these diseases from the introduction of methotrexate as a frontline therapy through to the current era and approval of the first small molecul...

Molecular pathways: Molecular basis for sensitivity and resistance to JAK inhibitors

Meyer SC and Levine RL.
Clin Cancer Research doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0279

Janus kinases (JAKs) mediate the regulation of a variety of cytokine signals with alterations in JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and Tyk2 signalling contributing to many disease states including autoimmune diseases and haematological malignancies. Recently tofacitinib and ruxolitinib have been approved for treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and myelofibrosis respectively. Several JAK2 inhibitors, such as momelotinib and pacritinib, currently in development for myelofibrosis and the JAK1/2 inhibitor baricitinib...

February 14

Rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology: update on emerging cytokine and cytokine-associated cell targets

Furst DE and Emery P.
Rheumatology doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ket414

Despite biologic therapies greatly improving the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, many patients do not respond to current treatments or do not maintain response to these treatments. This review covers the evidence for the newly discovered role of Th17 cells, IL-12 and IL-17 family of cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA as well as the development of new therapies targeting these cytokines. With current biologics targeting cytokines such as TNF, IL-1ß and IL-6, the discovery of the Th17 ...

Efficacy of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids and tofacitinib: a systematic literature review informing the 2013 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis

Gaujoux-Viala C, Nam J, Ramiro S.
Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204588

Systematic literature reviews were undertaken to assess the efficacy of csDMARDs, glucocorticoids and tofacitinib in the treatment of RA. The first two were updates to reviews conducted for the 2010 recommendations while the tofacitinib SLR was a complete review. Two studies identified by the csDMARD SLR, tREACH and TEAR, compared efficacy between MTX mono- and combination therapy (MTX+SSZ+HQ). Both of these studies found there was no benefit to immediate triple therapy. Further studies analysin...

Safety of synthetic and biological DMARDs: a systematic literature review informing the 2013 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis

Ramiro S, Gaujoux-Viala C, Nam JL et al.
Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204575

Two systematic literature reviews were undertaken to update the safety findings on synthetic and biological DMARDs in order to inform the updates to the EULAR recommendations to the treatment of RA. Of 10,559 articles screened, 49 were included for review covering a diverse range of outcomes. In the main these showed the patients on bDMARDs had a significantly greater risk of serious infections and tuberculosis compared with csDMARDs, while differences in data between studies mean a slight incr...

January 14

Genome-wide association studies to advance our understanding of critical cell types and pathways in rheumatoid arthritis: recent findings and challenges

Diogo D, Okada Y, Plenge RM.
Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 2014; 26:85–92. doi:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000012

A large number of loci implicated in disease susceptibility have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In this review article, Diogo et al. discuss recent advances in GWAS in the context of rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis and clinical applications. Relevant cells types and pathways in RA highlighted by GWAS to date include regulatory T-cells and CD4+ memory T cells as well as the JAK/STAT and NF-kB signalling pathways. The development of drugs targeting these pathways...

Emerging cell and cytokine targets in rheumatoid arthritis

Burmester GR, Feist E, Dörner T.
Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2013.168

Despite major progress in the treatment of RA over the past decade, sustained clinical remission remains elusive. The identification of new treatment targets is therefore necessary, with much research currently being undertaken in this area. Novel therapeutic approaches currently being investigated include T cell-directed therapies targeting both T cell activation and regulation; and the targeting of pathogenic B cell functions, including the use of depleting and non-depleting B cell-directed an...

November 13

Therapeutic Targeting of the JAK/STAT Pathway

Aittomaki S and Pesu M.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013 Oct 24. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12164

The inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway has proven to be a powerful therapeutic tool in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The authors review the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in human disease, including the role of mutations in defective function of this pathway. They discuss the rationale behind JAK inhibition and review the two JAK inhibitors currently approved by the FDA for clinical use; tofacitinib, for the treatment of RA, and ruxolitinib, for the treatment of polycythaemia vera and myel...

October 13

Involvement of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

Coskun M, Salem M, Pedersen J, Nielsen OF.
Pharmacological Research 2013; 76:1–8

The JAK/STAT signalling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this review, Coskun et al. provide an excellent background overview of the JAK/STAT cascade. They also highlight recent study findings investigating the mechanisms of the JAK/STAT pathway and the anti-inflammatory effects of novel JAK inhibitors in development and in clinical trials, particularly in IBD. In one study...

A meta-analysis of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

Li L, Li G, Yu C, Li Y.
Clinical Rheumatology 2013 doi 10.1007/s10067-013-2340-1

The role of p38-MAPK inhibitors in treating RA is the subject of some debate. Li et al. therefore performed the first meta-analysis of the current data to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these compounds. The authors identified 3 papers, covering 4 RCTs, for analysis and the results showed that p38-MAPK inhibition achieves a better level of ACR20 improvement vs. placebo, but showed no meaningful difference in ACR50, DAS28 or CRP levels past week 12. Due to the inadequate number and quality of...

Ibrutinib and novel BTK inhibitors in clinical development

Akinleye A, Chan Y, Mukhi N et al.
Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2013;6:59

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a part of the cytokine signalling pathways involved in malignancies and autoimmune disorders.. Akinleye et al. provide a review of all the current BTK inhibitors in preclinical and clinical trials for B-cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis. Particular focus is placed on ibrutinib, a novel human BTK-inhibitor, currently in phase III clinical trials. The authors also discuss four new compounds with potential indications...

September 13

Inhibitors of switch kinase ‘spleen tyrosine kinase’ in inflammation and immune-mediated disorders: A review

Kaur M, Singh M, Silakari O.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2013 67:434–446

SYK plays a significant role in the immune cell signalling of B cells, mast cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Kaur et al. provide a comprehensive review of the molecule, its role in autoimmune disease and clinical data on its inhibition. The paper covers the basic chemistry of SYK including structure, mechanism of action, synthetic derivatives and function, and the relevance of SYK as a therapeutic target for many autoimmune diseases is discussed. The SYK inhibitors currently in clinical trial...

Kinase Inhibitors: A new tool for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Chakravarty SD, Poulikakos PI, Ivashkiv LB et al.
Clinical Immunology 2013;148:66–78

Chakravaty et al. provide a comprehensive review of the scientific basis for kinase inhibitor use, and summarise experience from clinical trials in tofacitinib and fostamatinib, plus promising clinical data for p38-MAPK inhibitors and P13K? and P13Kd. The authors highlight potential future directions and challenges in kinase inhibitor research, including the emergence of kinases upstream of p38, such as MKK-3 and MKK-6, and the potential of BTK inhibition. One of the challenges of kinase inhibit...

August 13

Safety profile of protein kinase inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Salgado E, Maneiro J, Carmona L, et al.
Ann Rheum Dis April 2013; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-203116

Salgado and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review of the safety profiles of protein kinase inhibitors (PKis) used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Additionally, the study aims included identification of any class and molecule-related target and off-target adverse events. Data from 11,858 patients across 41 publications (phase 2 and 3 studies and two pooled analyses) were analysed. As well as published trials of PKi in RA, studies on healthy individuals and patients w...

Targeting the SYK-BTK axis for the treatment of immunological and hematological disorders: recent progress and therapeutic perspectives

Tan SL, Liao C, Lucas MC, et al.
Pharmacol Ther. 2013 May; 138(2):294–309

This review focuses on targeting spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors as potential immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders with SYK inhibition showing encouraging efficacy in patients with RA. The paper describes the role of SYK and BTK in several therapy areas including autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammatory disorders and haematological cancers as well as their role in innate immunity and regulators of ad...

June 13

Physiology of cytokine pathways in rheumatoid arthritis

Arend WP.
Arthritis Care & Research 2001; 45(1):101-6

This review from 2001 describes the main cytokines involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis, and the redundant and synergistic nature of cytokine pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The self-regulating nature of cytokines are explained through the actions of anti-inflammatory cytokines, opposing cytokines, cytokine receptor antagonists, and naturally occurring antibodies. The paper explains that as disease often results when an imbalance develops in the cytokine network, therap...

Cytokine networks—towards new therapies for rheumatoid arthritis

McInnes IB, Liew FY.
Nature Clinical Practice 2005; 1(1):31-9

This review describes cytokines and the cytokine network in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It also discusses how therapies that target cytokines may be feasible and efficacious treatments option for RA. Various targets are considered including blockade of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), as well as the targeting of cytokines that play a central role in immune regulation and tissue matrix destruction such as IL-6, IL-15, interferon-gamma (IF...

Cytokine receptor signaling through the Jak–Stat–Socs pathway in disease

O'Sullivan LA, Liongue C, Lewis RS, et al.
Molecular Immunology 2007; 44:2497-506

This review from 2007 provides an overview of the largest cytokine receptor family, the haematopoietin receptors, as well as other key components involved in one of the major cytokine signalling pathways implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This includes the Janus kinases (Jaks), signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stats) and suppressors of cytokine signalling genes (Socs). Essentially, when a cytokine binds to a receptor from this group a functional cytokine recep...

Cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

McInnes IB, Schett G.
Nature Reviews Immunology 2007; 7:429-42

The imbalance between the activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines favouring induction of autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and joint damage is well known, but how cytokines are organised within a hierarchical regulatory network and which cytokines are the best targets for clinical intervention is uncertain. This review therefore examines the effector function of cytokines in the immunological processes central to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The paper aims to try and ...

Janus kinases in immune cell signaling

Ghoreschi K, Laurence A, O'Shea JJ.
Immunological Reviews 2009; 228:273-87

This review from 2009 describes the Janus Kinases (JAK) that includes JAK1, JAK2, and JAK3, a subgroup of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases. This protein family has a diverse range of functions including roles in cell growth, survival, development, and differentiation of a variety of cells, and especially immune and haematopoietic cells. Current knowledge of protein structure, regulatory mechanisms, signalling pathways and intracellular interactions for the JAK family is reviewed. The paper ...

Intracellular Signal Pathways: Potential for Therapies

Mavers M, Ruderman EM, Perlman H.
Current Rheumatology Reports 2009; 11:378-85

With recent progress in the development of drugs targeting signalling pathways for rheumatoid arthritis, this review article from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the key intracellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This paper also discusses some of the limitations of current drug targets including lack of clinical efficacy, potential adverse effects and cost, and highlights important issues associated with the design of target drugs...

Inhibition of JAK kinases in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: scientific rationale and clinical outcomes

Riese RH, Krishnaswami S, Kremer J.
Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 2010; 24:513-26

This article reviews data from animal and phase 2 clinical studies assessing the immunomodulatory effects and pharmacokinetics of CP-690,550 (now known as tofacitinib), as well as its efficacy and safety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In two rodent models of arthritis, CP-690,550 produced dose-dependent decreases in signs of disease activity compared with untreated controls, reductions in histologically assessed inflammation and articular cartilage damage, and statistically signific...

The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

McInnes IB, Schett G.
The New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 365:2205-19

This review article describes the pathogenic processes involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and discusses the genetic factors and environmental triggers implicated in the disease. Data from twin studies are discussed along with candidate genes with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been linked to RA. It is now thought a multistep progression to the development of RA occurs via environmental factors, epigenetic modification of susceptible genes that leads to altered post-transcrip...

Small molecules targeting JAKs—a new approach in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Feist E, Burmester GR.
Rheumatology 2013: doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes417

This article focuses on the development of new small molecular inhibitors of Janus kinases (Jaks) in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of these, tofacitinib is at the most advanced stage of its clinical development and this article includes an overview of the results from the main tofacitinib clinical trials to date. These include the ORAL-Start study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients; ORAL-Scan in inadequate responders to MTX; ORAL-Solo and ORAL-Sync in inadequate responder...

Back to the future: oral targeted therapy for RA and other autoimmune diseases

O'Shea JJ, Laurence A, McInnes IB.
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 2013; 9(3):173-82

This review paper considers how advances in understanding of the disease process underlying rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the development of novel techniques have transformed the management of this progressively disabling condition. Physicians are no longer limited to prescribing symptomatic treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or choosing from a seemingly random array of drugs drawn from multiple disciplines, such as methotrexate and sulphasalazine, which are descri...

Janus kinases inhibitors in autoimmune diseases

O'Shea JJ, Kontzias A, Yamaoka K, et al.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2013; 72:ii111-ii115

This review describes the role of various cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and related diseases. This includes an overview of the different types of cytokine receptors including type I, which bind some of the interleukins (ILs), colony stimulating factors (CSFs) and hormones such as erythropoietin, prolactin and growth hormone (GH); and type II, which bind to interferons and IL-10-related proteins. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of type I and II cytokine receptors bind to members of a...